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What is hotspot?

Hotspot is used to share internet connection between two devices or computers.

Turn on hotspot in windows

If you are using windows latest update 10 than you can easily do this by searching for hotspot settings ---> set password ---> and you are good to go. But in older versions of windows 10 its not that easy and same for windows 8, 7. So in this video tutorial below i am showing you how to do it. Watch each step carefully and enjoy your hotspot with your friends and family. If you liked this tutorial show some love by subscribing my channel.



Start Commands:
netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow ssid=wifiname key=wifipass
netsh wlan start hostednetwork

 Stop Commands:
netsh wlan stop hostednetwork

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Learn C++ with very easy tutorial click the button below to start learning.

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What are short notes?

Short notes are basically composition of main topics which you really need to consider on and study them to get good grades in exam here are some shortnotes given below free to download.

MGT201 Shortnotes

MTH302 Shortnotes

CS101 Shortnotes

STA301 Shortnotes

MGT101 Shortnotes

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What is a Software Project

At first it is important to understand what the software is? “Software” can be defined comprehensively as, “Computer Programs that, when executed provide desired function and performance, data structures that enable the programs to adequately manipulate information and documents that describe the operation and use of programs”. Looking at the definition indicates clearly that developing software does not mean mere development of programs (or code) rather it requires the related documents to be produced as well. To develop software effectively requires following a process. Each stage of this process culminates in one or more artifacts. Examples of software projects are, software developed for face recognition, building a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System, Flight Simulation System, Point of Sale (PoS) System, a Web Portal, an Electronic Store Front etc. Software projects can be aimed at producing a desktop application, an embedded application (like to be used in microwave oven) or some online application.

Purpose of a Software Project

The University aims at producing such IT professionals who leave the impression of excellence in knowledge and skills in their professional lives. Students are encouraged to come up with innovative and unexplored ideas while addressing a problem. After having completed the project students will be expected to have the following skills, It will provide the students with an opportunity to implement the concepts they have learned throughout their degree program so far. Awareness of the latest technologies being used in the industry and more importantly the application of those technologies. Knowledge of all the formalities required to undertake a software project. Enough confidence to take the challenges of their practical environment.

Should I take Software Project?

The development project is recommended for those students who have an aptitude and interest (equally important) for development. Presence of analytical skills to solve a problem is also highly requisite. If a student finds these ingredients in himself/herself then deficiencies (to a certain extent) in the areas like programming, data base and software engineering etc can be overcome but such a student will have to put extra efforts (depending upon the deficiencies) to make his/her weak areas stronger. As having ambitions only does not lead to the goal, one has to strive for those ambitions to get them materialized.

Eligibility Criteria

No student below 1.75 Effective CGPA will be allowed to take the project title. MCS/MIT Students must have completed 30 credit hours to become eligible for taking the final project. So don’t enroll in CS619 course or drop your cs619 course if you have earned less than 30 credit hours. BSCS/BSIT Students must have completed 90 credit hours to become eligible for taking the final project. So don’t enroll in CS619 course or drop your cs619 course if you earned less than 90 credit hours.

Guidelines to register for a Project

Please read the following to get to know, how you can get registered for you final project. First of all, you have to enroll in CS619 course in Spring 2011 semester through course selection (contact [email protected] for enrollment). Carefully read the eligibility criteria and only send a request if you are eligible to take a final project title. Otherwise drop your cs619 course. The project selection will be done through LMS. Students will be required to make groups. In a group maximum two (2) students are allowed. A student can also choose to do the project alone (a single member of the group instead of two) Students who fail to submit their final project in specified duration (two consecutive semesters) will need to take extension for the next (one) semester in CS619 course. For this purpose, students have to request for extension through email at [email protected]

Grading Policy

Students will be clearly communicated about the deliverables they need to submit on specified dates. This is important to remember that each deliverable carries a significant weightage so students are advised to take each deliverable very seriously and submit it according to the date announcements according to the submission schedule.

While evaluating the students the following factors will be considered important

  1.  Effective use of time and of visual aids. 
  2.  Organizational and presentation skills. 
  3.  Seriousness and dedication of the students in meeting the announced dates for each deliverable. 

 This definition is taken from the book “Software Engineering A Practitioner’s Approach (Fourth Edition) by Roger S. Pressman”

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As we all know that when we uninstall any software application from our PC we think that it is completely uninstalled but that's not the end. When a software application is uninstalled it's all other junk files are remained in PC so in this article i will introduce a software which completely removes the software application with its junks files so like this your PC got a lot of free space. Watch the video below to install that software.

Video Tutorial

Download link

Download revo uinstaller

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About Exam software

VU exam software is a software used for attempting exam it provides a user friendly interface for students to attempt exam easily. Overseas exam software is for those students who live outside Pakistan. I provided a easy tutorial to tell overseas students how to download exam software.

Watch Tutorial

More Information

You may test your installation by joining any of the following sessions till given date during the specified session timings as mentioned below:
 Session 1: 08:00 A.M to 10:00 A.M (PST) Session
2: 11:00 A.M to 01:00 P.M (PST) Session
3: 02:30 P.M to 04:30 P.M (PST) Session
4: 05:00 P.M to 07:00 P.M (PST)

 In case of any query/problem, you may give your feedback to [email protected] or contact us on the following numbers during VU office hours i.e. 09:00AM-05:00PM (PST)

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It is habitual that test takers have a tough time with multiple choice questions, this is because they consider multiple choice questions as a stress-free set of question when equated to another type of questions and so forget to pay attention to it. Irrespective of the format of the question, test takers should concentrate on multiple choice questions a lot. Many people take a guess to answer multiple choice questions, but these type of questions require good skill and logic to answer them. Here are a few tips on how to solve multiple choice questions.

Deterring conventional wisdom:

Many individuals who take up objective type questions have the habit of guessing the middle option as the answer if they do not know. They also avoid answers which show none, all, always and never. William Poundstone who is an author opens up that this conventional wisdom will never help throughout the exam and so ignoring conventional wisdom is vital for answering a multiple choice answer.

Abolishing incorrect ones:

For answering a multiple choice question, it is a fact that the multiple options are formatted in a tough manner. Either of the options seems to be right in some aspect and so the test taker can pick out the wrong answers first and then choose the right answer.

True or false test:

Read the question carefully and if you’re muddled by looking at the options, give each option a true or false test. Cross out the false answers and by this way the most appropriate answer can be found out.

Handling all of the above:

In a multiple choice question when there is an option as “all of the above” be careful in answering such type of question. Check to see if more than two options are right, if so the choice can be opted.

Check the sentence:

When your question ends with ‘a’, ‘an’ or ’the’, then the answer should start appropriate to the article and hence correct answer can be chosen appropriately. This does not stand true for all questions but for few which has articles in it. Few questions in English can be handled this way for picking the right option.

Longest options:

In the midst of many questions when you find options with variable size of answers, pick the longest answer. It is a fact that the question designers cannot format very short answers.

Patterns and similarities:

When there are options with many variables and so, look out for the options and its patterns and similarities. Pick choices which have the same patterns and leave out the out liners so that the nearest or right answer is picked.

Middle order:

The middle order option is something which should be chosen, for example if the options are 100,150, 200, and 250 then choosing 150 or 200 can be the right choice. Designers of the question paper with a bias where right answers are lesser than the maximum and higher than the lowest.

First impression:

Always remember that the first impression is the best one. Once you have read the question, and then pick the right answer immediately. As you keep on reading the options there is a chance to choose the wrong option.

Chary reading and understanding

Test takers should make sure to read the question carefully though it is a timed test. Many individuals waste time without reading the question, hence it is important to read the question carefully and understand what is required.


Omkaar Shenoy Quora

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VU Exam Pattern Midtearn and Finalterm
Apply for rescheduling of missed Midterm and Final VU papers


  1. Logon using your VULMS ID and Password 
  2. (In case of any password related problem contact at [email protected]pk)
  3. Choose Your Exam City in which you want to appear for Exam (optional)
  4. Choose your Exam Center out of the centers available to you
  5. (Once selected, you can not change your Exam Center)
  6. Select available exam date and start time of your own choice for each of your courses, then click “Confirm” button to confirm your selection. The dates/sessions once selected shall NOT be changed.
  7. Repeat the Step-4 for all your remaining courses one by one.
  8. Finally click the button at the bottom of the page to get Examination Password and print your Examination Slip which you MUST keep with you for entry in Examination Center on each of the Exam Dates 
  9. In case of any problem/query regarding date sheet, email your query at [email protected]

Schedule of Late Signup Fee:

No fee will be charged up to May 31, 2018 .

Late fee @ Rs.500 /- (Local Student)/$ 20  (Overseas Student) will be charged from Jun 01, 2018  to Jun 07, 2018 .

Double Late fee @ Rs.1000 /- (Local Student)/$ 25 (Overseas Student) will be charged from Jun 08, 2018  to Jun 14, 2018 .

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How to use VU exam software
How to use VU overseas software

MCQ's came from these topics

  1. Fork() command
  2. wait() command
  3. System call()
  4. Kernel
  5. Processes and child process

Subjective long and short came from these topics

  1. Are threads better than process
  2. Discribe multi programming OS?
  3. What is multi threading?
  4. Code was given for wait() command in last question and it was said to define each line of code

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VU 1st semester mid term past papers
STA301 Current paper 2018

Why you need to install DOSBOX

Dox box is used for assembly programming and in CS401 course you are said to do programming and execute on dos box below is the link of complete package containing NASM, Debugger and DOSBOX. We also provided a easy tutorial of setting up DOSBOX which is given below so watch it carefully.

Download Link

Download Package 


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